Sophisticated Invalid Traffic (SIVT)

One of two forms of invalid traffic (IVT), sophisticated invalid traffic (SIVT) can take various forms and is more difficult to detect than general invalid traffic (GIVT), with identification requiring advanced analytics, and human intervention.

SIVT can have a non-human or human source and includes traffic from unknown/undeclared bots, server networks or data centres, or traffic caused by ad clutter or hidden ads.

SIVT can be unintentional and caused by errors such as the wrong integration of ad tags or the wrong declaration of the traffic source, but some sources of SIVT can be considered as fraud, where those responsible are actively trying to avoid detection. Such sources include malicious bots and click bots, creative hijacking, domain/app spoofing, hijacked devices, surfbars, or surf and click farms.